Reading Room

The books, journal articles, white papers and websites listed below include many of the key resources in the field of Cultural Property Protection (CPP) within a military context and cultural diplomacy. These resources serve as an introduction to the more comprehensive CCHAG Annotated Bibliography, which cultural property researchers may also wish to consult.


Featured Book

Ron E. Hassler, War on Sacred Grounds, Cornell University Press, 2009. This six-year-old book explores a topic that could not be more relevant today. Excerpt from publisher’s description: “Holy places create the potential for military, theological, or political clashes, not only between competing religious groups but also between religious groups and secular actors. In War on Sacred Grounds, Ron E. Hassner investigates the causes and properties of conflicts over sites that are both venerated and contested…. Sacred sites, he contends, are particularly prone to conflict because they provide valuable resources for both religious and political actors yet cannot be divided.” See table of contents and selected pages at Google Books.


Featured Article


Joris D. Kila and Christopher V. Herndon, “Military Involvement in Cultural Property Protection: An Overview,” in Joint Force Quarterly, issue 74, July 1014. ABSTRACT: Civilian participants in conflagrations are rightly concerned about cultural property protection (CPP) in host or occupied nations and appeal to military players to see preservation of icons as a force multiplier. Present precautionary measures are neither empowered nor timely enough to prevent unnecessary damage. An independent international academic center is proposed that would join a military CPP competence center fashioned by NATO or an academic entity to validate and energize projects. The concept of military necessity must be examined by all military and civilian stakeholders with CPP remaining depoliticized and kept in accord with international agreements and mandates. Related controversies can be mitigated through education, training, resource commitment, and dialogue, all creating a cooperative civil-military culture that protects cultural treasures. Read more


Arndt, Richard T. (2005) The First Resort of Kings: American Cultural Diplomacy in the Twentieth Century. Potomac Books, Washington, D.C.

Arndt, Richard T. (2010) “The Hush-Hush Debate: The Cultural Foundations of U.S. Public Diplomacy” in Public Diplomacy Magazine, Winter 2010, pp 18-28.

Belder, Lucretia (2013) The Legal Protection of Cultural Heritage in International Law and its Implementation in Dutch Law, doctoral dissertation, University of Utrecht, 2013.

Bogdanos, Matthew (2005) “Joint Interagency Coordination: The First Step,” in Joint Force Quarterly, issue 37, April 2005.

Bogdanos, Matthew, and William Patrick (2005) Thieves of Baghdad: one marine’s passion for ancient civilizations and the journey to recover the world’s greatest stolen treasures. Bloomsbury Publishing, New York.

Bogdanos, Matthew (2007) “The Art of War” in Marine Corps Gazette, the professional journal of the U.S. Marines, Volume 91, Issue 6, June 2007, pp 29-31.

Bogdanos, Matthew (2008) “Combating Global Traffic in Stolen Antiquities”, in Fordham International Law Journal, volume 31, February, 2008.

Bogdanos, Matthew (2009) “Duties That Are Best Shared” in The Washington Post, March 1, 2009.

Gerstenblith, Patty (2006) “From Bamiyan to Baghdad: Warfare and the Preservation of Cultural Heritage at the Beginning of the 21st Century,” in Georgetown Journal of International Law, issue 37, pp 245-351.

Gerstenblith, Patty (2009) “Protecting Cultural Heritage in Armed Conflict: Looking Back, Looking Forward,” in Cardozo Public Law, Policy & Ethics Journal, volume 7, pp 677-708.

Gerstenblith, Patty (2009) “Archaeology in the Context of War: Legal Frameworks for Protecting Cultural Heritage during Armed Conflict,” in Archaeologies, volume 1, issue 1, 18-31.

Gerstenblith, Patty (2010) “The Obligations Contained in International Treaties of Armed Forces to Protect Cultural Heritage in Times of Armed Conflict,” in Archaeology, Cultural Property, and the Military, edited by Laurie W. Rush, pp. 4-14. The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, UK.

Green, Paul R. (2010) “Cultural Resources Data for Heritage Protection in Contingency Operations” in Archaeology, Cultural Property, and the Military, edited by Laurie W. Rush, pp. 108-116. The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, UK.

Jackson, Richard (2008) “Cultural Property Protection in Stability Operations,” in Army Lawyer 2008, pp 47-57.

Jackson, Richard, et al. (2012) The Law of Armed Conflict: An Operational Approach,Wolters Kluwer, 2012.

ICOM (2003) Cultural Heritage Disaster Preparedness and ResponseInternational Symposium Proceedings, Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad, India, 23-27 November 2003.

Kane, Susan, “Lessons Learned From Libya,” in The SAA Archaeological Record, volume 13, number 3, May 2013, pp 9-13.

Karcanes, James A. “Cultural Competence and the Operational Commander: Moving Beyond Cultural Awareness into Culture-Centric Warfare,” Naval War College, Newport R.I., 2007.

Kila, Joris D. (2008) “The Role of Nato and Civil Military Affairs,” in Lawrence Rothfield (ed.), Antiquities under Siege, chapter 16, New York 2008, pp. 175–192.

Kila, Joris D. (2008) “Utilizing Military Cultural Experts in Times of War and Peace: an introduction,” in Paul Meerts (ed.), Culture and International Law, Chapter 12, The Hague 2008, pp. 183–229.

Kila, Joris D.(2009) “The relevance of cultural heritage protection in times of armed conflict. Utilizing military cultural experts in war and peacetime: cases and examples from the field,” in the e-book KULTUURIVÄÄRTUSTE KAITSE RELVAKONFLIKTI KORRAL, Marju Reismaa (ed.), The Estonian Heritage Society, 2009.

Kila, Joris D. (2010) “Dissemination of the 1954 Hague Convention and the 1999 Second Protocol: Embedding Cultural Property Protection within the Military,” in L. Lijnzaad and N. van Woudenberg (eds.), Protecting Cultural Property in Armed Conflict. An insight into the 1999 Second Protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, Leiden, 2010, pp. 95–105.

Kila, Joris D, (2010) “Cultural Property Protection in times of armed conflict deploying military experts or can white men sing the blues,” in Laurie Rush (ed.), Archaeology, Cultural Property and the Military, Woodbridge 2010, pp. 41–59.

Kila, Joris D. (2011) Cultural Property Protection in the Context of Military Operations: The Case of Uruk, Iraq, in Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites (CMAS), Vol. 13 No. 4, November 2011, 311–333.

Kila, Joris D. (2011) “Überlegungen zum Status quo der Beteiligung des Militärs am Schutz von Kulturgut” (Some thoughts on the current state of military involvement in Cultural Property Protection, following the 1954 Hague Convention and Protocols) in ÖMZ (Austrian Military Journal), Volume 5, September 2011. Click for brief description.


Kila, Joris D. (2012) Heritage under Siege: Military Implementation of Cultural Property Protection following the 1954 Hague Convention. Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden (2012).

Kila, Joris D. (2013) Inactive, Reactive, or Pro-Active? Cultural Property Crimes in the Context of Contemporary Armed Conflicts in Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2013, 319-342.

Kila, Joris D. and James A. Zeidler, eds. (2013) Cultural Heritage in the Crosshairs: Protecting Cultural Property During Conflict, Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden.

Kila, Joris D. and Karl van Habsburg (2014) ANCBS Report: Civil-Military Assessment Mission for Malian Heritage, 13-19 Jan 2014, Association of National Committees of the Blue Shield, Vienna.

King, Thomas F. (2008) Cultural Resource Laws and Practice. (Third Edition). AltaMira Press, Lanham, MD.

Lambert, Simon and Cynthia Rockwell, ed. (2004) Protecting Cultural Heritage in Times of Conflict, contributions from the participants of the international course on First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of Conflict, ICCROM; Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities (Ministero per il Bene e Le Attivita Culturali).

Micewski, Edwin R. and Gerhard Sladek, editors (2002) Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict: A Challenge in Peace Operations. Austrian Society for the Protection of Cultural Property, Vienna.

Manacorda, Stefano and Duncan Chappel, editors (2011) Crime in the Art and Antiquities World. Illegal Trafficking in Cultural Property. Springer, 2011.

Noblis Corporation (2010) Sustainable Forward Operating Bases. Report prepared for the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Arlington, VA.

Parcak, Sarah H. (2004) Satellite Remote Sensing for Archaeology, Routledge, 2009.

Parcak, Sarah H. (2010) “Preserving Global Heritage from Space in Times of War,” in Archaeology, Cultural Property, and the Military, edited by L. W. Rush, pp. 167-176. The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, UK.

Parcak, Sarah H (2013) DoD Satellite Archaeology Manual for the Middle East. Prepared by the Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands, Colorado State University and Geo-Marine Inc., for the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth District. U.S. Air Force ORCHID Series, Reports of Investigations, Number 3, Geo-Marine Inc., Plano, Texas. [DoD publication – FOUO].

Perini, Sylvia with Emma Cunliffe (2014) Toward a Protection of Syrian Cultural Heritage: A summary of international responses (March, 2011 – March, 2014, Heritage for Peace, 2014.

Prott, Lyndel V. and Roger J. O’Keefe, Handbook of National Regulations Concerning the Export of Cultural Property, prepared for UNESCO, September 1988, 255 pages [no longer authoritative due to its publication date, but still considered a ready resource in English for HN cultural property laws that pre-date 1988; a more up-to-date database of HN cultural property laws can be found at this page].

Rush, Laurie W., and Matthew F. Bogdanos (2009) “The Strategic Value of Heritage Training: Protecting the Past to Secure the Future,” in Joint Forces Quarterly, issue 53 (2), pp 126-127.

Rush, Laurie W. (2010a) “Dealing the Heritage Hand: Establishing a United States Department of Defense Cultural Property Protection Program for Global Operations,” in Archaeology, Cultural Property, and the Military, edited by L. W. Rush, pp. 86-97. The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, UK.

Rush, Laurie W. (2010b) Teaching Cultural Property Protection in the Middle East: The Central Command Historical/Cultural Advisory Group and International Efforts. In Archaeology, Cultural Property, and the Military, edited by L. W. Rush, pp. 98-107. The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, UK.

Rush, Laurie W. (2012) Cultural Property Protection as a Force Multiplier in Stability Operations: World War II Monuments Officers Lessons Learned,” in Military Review, March-April, 2012, pp 36-43.

Rush, Laurie W. (2012) “Working with the military to protect archaeological sites and other forms of cultural property,” in World Archaeology, volume 44, issue 3, 2012, pp 359-377.

Rush, Laurie W. (2013) Protection of Cultural Property in Areas of Crisis. The view of a Military Archaeologist,” in Predella, Journal of the Visual Arts (Pisa, Italy).
Download the PDF.

Scales, Robert H. (2003) Yellow Smoke: the future of land warfare for America’s military. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003.

Scales, Robert H. (2004) “Army Transformation: Implications for the Future,” statement of Major General Robert Scales, U.S. Army (ret.), testifying before the House Armed Services Committee on July 15, 2004.

Scales, Robert H. (2004) Culture-Centric Warfare in The Naval Institute: Proceedings, October, 2004.

Scales, Robert H. (2006) “Clausewitz and World War IV,” in Armed Forces Journal, July 2006.

Svec, Leedjia (2014) Cultural heritage training in the U.S. military. Springerplus, 3:126.

Stone, Peter G. and Joanne Farchakh Bajjaly, ed., The Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Iraq, Boydell and Brewer, 2009.

United States Department of State (2005) Cultural Diplomacy: The Linchpin of Public Diplomacy, Report of the Advisory Committee on Cultural Diplomacy, September 2005.

United States Department of Defense, Department of Army (2009) GTA 41-01_002*, Civil Affairs Arts, Monuments and Archives Guide, August 2009.

United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) (2011) Military Training: Actions Needed to Improve Planning and Coordination of Army and Marine Corps Language and Culture Training. United States Government Accountability Office, Report to Congressional Committees, GAO-11-456. Washington, D.C.

Van Der Auwera, Sigrid (2010) “Peace Operations and the Protection of Cultural Property During and After Armed Conflict” in International Peacekeeping, Vol. 17, Issue 1.

Van Der Auwera, Sigrid and Annick Schramme (2011) “Civil Society Action in the Field of Cultural Heritage” in Heritage and Society, Volume 4 Issue 1, April 2011.

Van Der Auwera, Sigrid (2012) ‘Contemporary conflict, nationalism and the destruction of cultural property during armed conflict: a theoretical framework’ in Journal of Conflict Archaeology, Vol. 7, Issue 1, p. 49-65

Van Der Auwera, Sigrid (2013) “UNESCO and the Protection of Cultural Property During Armed Conflict” in International Journal of Cultural Policy, Vol. 19, Issue 1, p. 1-19, available on i-first from 2011

Van Der Auwera, Sigrid (2013) “International Law and the Protection of Cultural Property During Armed Conflict: Actual Problems and Challenges,” in International Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society, volume 43, issue 4, pp 175-190.

Van Der Auwera, Sigrid (2013) ‘“Culture for development” and the UNESCO policy on the protection of cultural property during armed conflict’ in International Journal of Cultural Policy, already available via i-first, DOI:10.1080/10286632.2013.817395

Van Tilburg, Hans K. (2003) Underwater Cultural Resources Management and Protection, for The Naval Historical Center, U.S. Department of Defense Legacy Resource Management Program, Project Number 01-121, December 2003.

Wegener, Corine (2004) The Iraq National Museum: Networking, Coordination and Collaboration in Wartime Cultural Heritage Disaster Preparedness and Response Proceedings. Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad, India, 23-27 November 2003, (Paris: International Council of Museums), 2004.

Wegener, Corine and Marjan Otter (2008) “Cultural Property at War: Protecting Heritage During Armed Conflict,” in Conservation (The Getty Conservation Institute: Spring 2008) p. 4.

Zeidler, James A., and Laurie W. Rush (2010) “In-Theatre Soldier Training through Cultural Heritage Playing Cards: A US Department of Defense Example,” in Archaeology, Cultural Property, and the Military, edited by L. W. Rush, pp. 73-85. The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, UK.

Zeidler, James A., and Alexandra Wallace, compilers (2010) Product Catalog for Cultural Property Protection Planning and Training in the Department of Defense. Prepared for the Department of Defense Legacy Resource Management Program, Arlington, VA, by the Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.